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Human Geography Nature and scope MCQ ncert class 12 notes


In the initial stage of development Geography heavily depended on the study of physical phenomena only. This major emphasis on physical geography may be attributed to the fact that in the initial stage of development of geography it was taught by teachers who had a Geology background Carl Ritter and Ratzel were among the first who considered man as an agent who brings a change in the landscape. Ratzel stressed synthesizing physical and cultural phenomena to have a complete view of the horizon of the earth. Nevertheless, it was Vidal-de-Lablache who founded the school of human geography According to him, it is unreasonable to draw boundaries between natural and cultural phenomena; they should be regarded as united and inseparable. In an area of human settlement, nature changes significantly because of the presence of man, and those changes are greatest where the presence of man and those changes are greatest where the level of the material culture of a community is highest. The followers of Vidal-de-Lablache who made valuable contributions to Human Geography were Jean Brunches, Albert Demangeon, and Miss Semple.
The basic philosophy of the followers of human geography was to establish a man-nature relationship in which each of the two is dependent on the other. All geographical studies are aimed at developing an understanding of the earth's surface along with its physical and social phenomena.

NATURE OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Human Geography Nature

Human Geography Nature and scope MCQ ncert class 12 notes

Human geography deals with conditions on the earth, the distribution of people on the surface of the earth, and finally the relative ship of man to the various environments - man Geography reveals itself to be an interpretation of the relation between the life of man and the geo-elements, geo-fa forces of nature. studies many ads to the natural environment and the peculiar ways in which he adapts his life either wholly or in part to physical and organic Nature. It is not correct to say that human geography is human ecology. The subject matter of Human Geography is very vast whereas ecology studies only the interrelationship between man and his natural environment. (Fig.

Human Geography is primarily a search for relationships between the natural env ment, human activities or an attempt to establish environmental control as their bases with time man's scientific and technological equipment for making adjustments to the physical environment has been enlarged and changed almost beyond relief. Human society also makes social and cultural adjustments to the natural environment. Thus the cultural development of man forms the subject matter of Human geography. Culture shapes what men see in their natural surroundings. In it, we study problems arising out of the mutual synthesis of man and his physical environment. We see how in various regions man establishes adaptation and adjustment and makes necessary changes and modifications therein.

SCOPE OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Human Geography scope

Human Geography Nature and scope MCQ ncert class 12 notes

Human Geography is a very vast subject, with many overlapping applications within both the physical and social sciences. The subject matter of Human Geography may be divided into two broad sections viz;

A. Physical Environment

B. Cultural Environment (Fig. ) 

A. Physical or Natural Environment: It consists of the following physical phenomena: 

1. Climate

(a) Temperature

(b) Rainfall

(c) Type of Climate

2. Surface Configuration and drainage

(a) Nature of underlying rock

(b) Principal landforms (Plains, mountains, Plateaus)

(c) Drainage

(d) Surface features of smaller size 

3. Earth resources

Water, natural vegetation, animal life,

soils and minerals.

B. Cultural Environment: It includes man-made features on the earth such as population, human establishments, agriculture, features associated with production and transportation, etc. Components of the cultural environment are as given below :

1. Population

2. Houses and Settlements

3. Production Activities (Agriculture, Manufacturing industries)

4. Transportation

5. Foreign and Domestic Trade.

According to Finch and Trewartha, the presentation of human facts on a regional basis of the systematic study and distribution of human facts on the surface of the earth is the subject matter of cultural or Human Geography. We study man and his activities in the form of regional differences in Human Geography. His activities are influenced by natural factors to a considerable extent and he modifies them by his intellectual progress.
After considering the physical and cultural environment on which the study of Human Geography is based the scope of Human Geography can be studied with the following aspects :

1. The population of the region

2. Natural resources of the region

3. Study of the cultural landscape

4. Study of resource utilization and Re

5. sources planning.

6. Study of environmental adjustment

1. The population: In Human Geography different aspects of the population are studied. Distribution, spatial variations in the distribution of population, density, growth, variations in densities, and study of natural factors affecting the distribution and density are included.

2. Study of cultural landscape: It is the study of all the activities of a man taking place on the surface of the earth. A study of the evolution and localization of different types of civilizations is included. The classification, distribution, and development of the facts of the humanized landscape-field-house, village, town, and state are all come within the scope of Human Geography. The development of civilization depends on the increasing exploitation of natural advantages and the development of closer interactions between land and its people. Cultural activities modify the natural environment because people may react differently to the same natural environment.

3. Natural resources: Man obtains various resources from the surface of the earth. The development of industrialization and self depend upon the resource endowment found in a particular region. So man makes a regional study of the earth because of the supply of various kinds of raw material flows from various areas of the world. In fact concept of natural resources is culture-bound Materials found on the earth become res sources only when they have got some utility by man.

4. Study of resource utilization and re-source planning In Human Geography the study of various human activities about their physical environment, the extent of the exploitation of natural endowment based on the technological development of humans is included. In satisfying their material needs people of different parts of the globe generally follow the occupation according to their geographic surroundings and their capacity to exploit these resources gives them the greatest chance of success. The study also includes the evolution and distribution of the industrial economy, the development of the key industries, trade and its routes, etc.

5. Study of environmental adjustment: The chief objective of the study of Human Geography is how man has made adjustments to various environments in various fields. For example, human adjustment to water, the importance, and influence of climate, structure, and distribution of the soil, the distribution and effects of minerals, etc. Human life in various natural regions and their mode of life, and economic, social and cultural adjustments, political adjustments are all dependent on the natural environment.

To conclude, the subject matter of Human Geography is immeasurably vast. It stands midway between the sciences that study nature on the one hand and history and other humanistic studies on the other.


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